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Ann Calvert Stuart Robinson by
Gilbert Stuart
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting 
Oil on canvas
30 x 36 cm

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Gilbert Stuart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-11-19


Description: old man with gray hair combed back and black coat

Gilbert Stuart portrait miniature by Sarah Goodridge, 1825


Gilbert Charles Stewart[1]
(1755-12-03)December 3, 1755
Saunderstown, Rhode Island Colony, British America


July 9, 1828(1828-07-09) (aged 72)
Boston, Massachusetts, United States



Known for


Notable work

George Washington (The Athenaeum Portrait) (1796)
George Washington (Lansdowne portrait) (1796)
George Washington (Vaughan Portrait) (1795)
The Skater (1782)
Self-Portrait (1778)
Catherine Brass Yates (1794)
John Jay (1794)
John Adams (1824)

Gilbert Charles Stuart (born Stewart; December 3, 1755 – July 9, 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island.

Gilbert Stuart is widely considered to be one of America's foremost portraitists.[2] His best known work, the unfinished portrait of George Washington that is sometimes referred to as The Athenaeum, was begun in 1796 and never finished; Stuart retained the portrait and used it to paint 130 copies which he sold for $100 each. The image of George Washington featured in the painting has appeared on the United States one-dollar bill for over a century,[2] and on various U.S. Postage stamps of the 19th century and early 20th century.[3]


Throughout his career, Gilbert Stuart produced portraits of over 1,000 people, including the first six Presidents of the United States.[4] His work can be found today at art museums across the United States and the United Kingdom, most notably the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the National Portrait Gallery, London, Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.[5]


Early life

Description: Simple, two-story wooden house. The two doors open directly on to the front lawn.

The Gilbert Stuart Birthplace in Saunderstown, Rhode Island

Gilbert Stuart was born in Saunderstown, Rhode Island, a village of North Kingstown, on December 3, 1755 and baptized at Old Narragansett Church on April 11, 1756.[6][7] He was the third child of Gilbert Stewart,[8] a Scottish immigrant employed in the snuff-making industry, and Elizabeth Anthony Stewart, a member of a prominent land-owning family from Middletown, Rhode Island.[4] Stuart's father worked in the first colonial snuff mill in America, which was located in the basement of the family homestead.[9]

Gilbert Stuart moved to Newport, Rhode Island at the age of six, where his father pursued work in the merchant field. In Newport, Stuart first began to show great promise as a painter.[10] In 1770, Stuart made the acquaintance of Scottish artist Cosmo Alexander, a visitor of the colonies who made portraits of local patrons and who became a tutor to Stuart.[11][12] Under the guidance of Alexander, Stuart painted the famous portrait Dr. Hunter's Spaniels, which hangs today in the Hunter House Mansion in Newport, when he was fourteen years old. The painting is also referred to as Dr. Hunter's Dogs by some accounts.[7]

In 1771 Stuart moved to Scotland with Alexander to finish his studies; however, Alexander died in Edinburgh one year later. Stuart tried to maintain a living and pursue his painting career but to no avail, and so in 1773 he returned to Newport.[13]

England and Ireland

Description:  Highlighted face of a solemn young man, surrounded by a dark background.

Self-Portrait, painted in 1778

Description: A well dressed young man taking graceful steps, arms folded.

The Skater, 1782, a portrait of William Grant

Stuart's prospects as a portraitist were jeopardized by the onset of the American Revolution and its social disruptions. Following the example set by John Singleton Copley, Stuart departed for England in 1775.[14] Unsuccessful at first in pursuit of his vocation, he then became a protégé of Benjamin West, with whom he studied for the next six years. The relationship was a beneficial one, with Stuart exhibiting at the Royal Academy as early as 1777.[14]

By 1782 Stuart had met with success, largely due to acclaim for The Skater, a portrait of William Grant. It was Stuart's first full-length portrait and, according to the art historian Margaret C. S. Christman, it "belied the prevailing opinion that Stuart 'made a tolerable likeness of a face, but as to the figure, he could not get below the fifth button'".[15] Stuart said he was "suddenly lifted into fame by a single picture".[16]

At one point, the prices for his pictures were exceeded only by those of renowned English artists Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough. Despite his many commissions, however, Stuart was habitually neglectful of finances and was in danger of being sent to debtors' prison. During this period he married Charlotte Coates. In 1787 he fled to Dublin, Ireland, where he painted and accumulated debt with equal vigor.[17]

New York and Philadelphia

Leaving numerous unfinished paintings behind, Stuart ended his 18-year stay in the British Isles in 1793, returning to the United States to settle briefly in New York City.[15] In 1795 he moved to Germantown, Pennsylvania, near (and now part of) Philadelphia, where he opened a studio.[18][19] It was here that he would gain not only a foothold in the art world, but lasting fame with pictures of many important Americans of the day.


George Washington, 1796. Oil on canvas. One of several copies Stuart painted of this full-length portrait. Brooklyn Museum

Description: Detailed painting of head and shoulders  of Washington. Over half of the canvas is blank.

Gilbert Stuart's unfinished 1796 painting of George Washington, also known as The Athenaeum, is his most celebrated and famous work.

Stuart painted George Washington in a series of iconic portraits, each of them leading in turn to a demand for copies and keeping Stuart busy and highly paid for years.[20] The most famous and celebrated of these likenesses, known as The Athenaeum, is currently portrayed on the United States one dollar bill. Stuart, along with his daughters, painted a total of 130 reproductions of The Athenaeum. However, Stuart never completed the original version; after finishing Washington's face, the artist kept the original version to make the copies.[21] He sold up to 70 of his reproductions for a price of US$100 each, but the original portrait was left unfinished at the time of Stuart's death in 1828.[21] The painting was jointly purchased by the National Portrait Gallery and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1980, and in late 2014 was on display in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.[22][23]

Another celebrated image of Washington is the Lansdowne portrait, a large portrait with one version hanging in the East Room of the White House. During the burning of Washington by British troops in the War of 1812, this painting was saved through the intervention of First Lady Dolley Madison and Paul Jennings, one of President James Madison's slaves. Four versions of the portrait are attributed to Stuart,[24] and additional copies were painted by other artists for display in U.S. government buildings.[25] In 1803, Stuart opened a studio in Washington, D. C.[26]

Boston, 1805–1828

Stuart moved to Boston in 1805, continuing in critical acclaim and financial troubles. He lived on Devonshire Street.[27] He exhibited works locally at Doggett's Repository[28] and Julien Hall.[29] He was sought out for advice by other artists such as John Trumbull, Thomas Sully, Washington Allston, and John Vanderlyn.[15] In 1824 he suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed. Nevertheless, Stuart continued to paint for two years until his death in Boston at the age of 72.[30] He was buried in the Old South Burial Ground of the Boston Common. As Stuart left his family deeply in debt, his wife and daughters were unable to purchase a grave site. Stuart was therefore buried in an unmarked grave which was purchased cheaply from Benjamin Howland, a local carpenter.[31]

In an effort to provide financial aid Stuart's family, the Boston Athenæum held a benefit exhibition of his works in August 1828. Over 250 portraits were lent for this critically acclaimed and well subscribed exhibition. This also marked the first public showing of Stuart's unfinished 1796 Athenæum Head portrait of Washington.[32]

When Stuart's family recovered from their financial troubles roughly ten years later, they planned to move his body to a family cemetery in Newport, Rhode Island. However, since his family could not remember the exact location of Stuart's body, it was never moved.[33]


By the end of his career, Gilbert Stuart had taken the likenesses of over one thousand American political and social figures.[34] He was praised for the vitality and naturalness of his portraits, and his subjects found his company agreeable:

Speaking generally, no penance is like having one's picture done. You must sit in a constrained and unnatural position, which is a trial to the temper. But I should like to sit to Stuart from the first of January to the last of December, for he lets me do just what I please, and keeps me constantly amused by his conversation.

— John Adams[35]

Stuart was known for working without the aid of sketches, beginning directly upon the canvas. This was very unusual for the time period. His approach is suggested by the advice he gave to his pupil Matthew Harris Jouett: "Never be sparing of colour, load your pictures, but keep your colours as separate as you can. No blending, tis destruction to clear & bea[u]tiful effect."[15]

Stuart's works can be found today at art museums and private collections throughout the United States and Great Britain, including the University Club in New York City, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the National Portrait Gallery in London, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.[5]

His daughter, Jane Stuart (1812–1888), also a painter, sold many of his paintings and her replicas of them from her studios in Boston and Newport, Rhode Island.[36]

A life mask of Stuart was created by John Henri Isaac Browere around 1825.[37]

In 1940, the U.S. Post Office issued a series of Postage stamps called the 'Famous Americans Series' commemorating famous Artists, Authors, Inventors, Scientists, Poets, Educators and Musicians. Along with the artists James McNeil Whistler, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Daniel Chester French and Frederic Remington, Gilbert Stuart is found on the 1 cent issue in the Artists category.

Today, Stuart's birthplace in Saunderstown, Rhode Island is open to the public as the Gilbert Stuart Birthplace and Museum. The museum consists of the original house Stuart was born in, with copies of paintings from throughout his career hanging throughout the house. The museum opened in 1930.[38]

Description: Marble plaque with an outlay of a feather linked to a piece of chain, and the name "Gilbert Stuart" carved on it.

Memorial tablet located in the Boston Common


John H. I. Browere's life mask portrait of Stuart, ca.1825


Gilbert Stuart

Issue of 1940

Notable people painted

This is a partial list of portraits painted by Stuart.[39]

Portrait gallery

American artist Benjamin West, 1783–84

English artist Joshua Reynolds, 1784

American artist John Singleton Copley, c. 1784

American artist John Trumbull, c. 1818

William Bayard, 1794, Princeton University Art Museum

Horatio Gates, 1794

Peter Gansevoort, 1794

George Washington, 1795, Metropolitan Museum of Art New York

Lansdowne portrait of George Washington, 1797

George Washington, ca. 1805, Rhode Island School of Design Museum

George Washington At Dorchester Heights, 1806, Boston Museum of Fine Arts

George Washington, 1825, Walters Art Museum

The second First Lady of the United States, Abigail Adams, c. 1800–1815

Robert R. Livingston, diplomat and Founding Father, 1793–94

John Jay, 1794, First Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court

Anna Payne Cutts, sister of First Lady Dolley Madison, 1804, The White House

The fourth President of the United States, James Madison, 1804, Bowdoin College Museum of Art

Jérôme Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1804

The second President of the United States, John Adams (nearly 89), 1823

The third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, c. 1821, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

The fourth President of the United States, James Madison, c. 1821

The fifth President of the United States, James Monroe

The sixth President of the United States, John Quincy Adams, 1818, son of John and Abigail Adams

The sixth First Lady of the United States, Louisa Catherine Adams c. 1821–26, daughter-in law of John and Abigail Adams

Sir Robert Kingsmill, Admiral in Royal Navy during American and French Revolutionary Wars

United States Senator and Secretary of State Daniel Webster, 1825

George Calvert, politician and planter, 1804

Rosalie Stier Calvert, Belgian-born heiress and wife of George Calvert

Henry Rice, Boston merchant and Massachusetts state legislator, c. 1815

Lithograph of Little Turtle, Chief of the Miami Tribe, reputedly based upon a lost portrait by Gilbert Stuart, destroyed when the British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814[41]

John Jones of Frankley held at the Birmingham Museum of Art

George Washington (The Constable-Hamilton Portrait, 1797) Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas

Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis, 1809 Reynolda House Museum of American Art, Winston-Salem, NC

John Carroll, first Catholic bishop of the United States, c. 1804, Georgetown University Art Collection, Washington, D.C.

Stuart's art on postage stamps

Gilbert Stuart's paintings of Washington, Jefferson and others have been served as models for the engravings found on dozens of U.S. Postage stamps released over the years. Washington's image from the famous Washington portrait, The Athenaeum, is probably the most noted example of Stuart's work on U.S. Postage.

~ 1861 ~

~ 1861 ~

~1903 ~

~ 1954 ~








Elizabeth Bowdoin, Lady Temple, oil on wood panel



Subject: lived 1750–1809; wife of Sir John Temple (first British consul general to United States, 1785).


    1. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart (1775–1828)". Worcester Art Museum. Retrieved 4 February 2008. 
    2. ^ Jump up to: a b Gilbert Stuart Birthplace and Museum. Gilbert Stuart Biography. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    3. Jump up ^ "10-cent Washington". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
    4. ^ Jump up to: a b Gilbert Stuart Birthplace at the Wayback Machine (archived November 16, 2005), The Story of Gilbert Stuart. Woonsocket Connection. Retrieved on July 25, 2007.
    5. ^ Jump up to: a b ArtCyclopedia. Gilbert Stuart. Paintings in Museums and Public Art Galleries. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    6. Jump up ^ The Old Narragansett Church (St. Paul's): Built A.D. 1707. A Constant Witness to Christ and His Church. Committee of Management. 1915. p. 15. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
    7. ^ Jump up to: a b "Gilbert Stuart". The Gilbert Stuart Museum. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
    8. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart". NNDB. Retrieved 25 July 2007. 
    9. Jump up ^ McLanathan 1986, p. 13.
    10. Jump up ^ Gilbert Stuart Birthplace. Gilbert Stuart. Accessed: July 28, 2007.
    11. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Art "Gilbert Stuart, Newport and Edinburgh (1755-1775)" Check |url= scheme (help). Retrieved 28 July 2007. 
    12. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart". Redwood Library and Athenæum, Newport Rhode Island. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
    13. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart". Germantown, Portrait Artist. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
    14. ^ Jump up to: a b National Gallery of Art. Gilbert Stuart. London (1775-1787). Accessed: July 31, 2007.
    15. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Christman, Margaret C. S. "Stuart, Gilbert." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, retrieved October 1, 2012
    16. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Art.The Skater (Portrait of William Grant), 1782. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
    17. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Art. Gilbert Stuart. Dublin (1787-1793). Accessed: July 31, 2007.
    18. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart — Washington". Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
    19. Jump up ^ "George Washington". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
    20. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Art. Gilbert Stuart. Philadelphia (1794-1803). Accessed: July 31, 2007.
    21. ^ Jump up to: a b Wallechinsky, David and Irving Wallace. "Unfinished Art: Gilbert Stuart's Portrait of George Washington". The People's Almanac. Retrieved 21 April 2008. 
    22. Jump up ^ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, George Washington Accessed December 12, 2014.
    23. Jump up ^ National Portrait Gallery Collections Search, NPGAmerica's Presidents, page 9. Accessed December 12, 2014.
    24. Jump up ^ Stretch, Bonnie Barrett, "The White House Washington", Artnews, October 1, 2004. Accessed: May 11, 2012.
    25. Jump up ^ Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives, Artist Gilbert Stuart's portraits of George Washington. Accessed: May 11, 2012.
    26. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Art. Gilbert Stuart. Washington, D.C. (1803-1805). Accessed: July 31, 2007.
    27. Jump up ^ The Boston Directory. Boston: E. Cotton. 1813. p. 237. 
    28. Jump up ^ Daily Advertiser, March 2, 1822
    29. Jump up ^ Boston Commercial Gazette Dec.1, 1825
    30. Jump up ^ McLanathan 1986, p. 148.
    31. Jump up ^ McLanathan 1986, p. 150.
    32. Jump up ^ Swan, Mabel Munson The Athenæum Gallery 1827-1873: The Boston Athenæum as an Early Patron of Art (Boston: The Boston Athenæum, 1940) pp. 62-73
    33. Jump up ^ Wolpaw, Jim. Gilbert Stuart: A Portrait from Life (9-Minute Trailer). Documentary.
    34. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart". Gilbert Stuart Museum. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 
    35. Jump up ^ McLanathan 1986, p. 147.
    36. Jump up ^ "History Bytes: Jane Stuart". Newport Historical Society. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
    37. Jump up ^ Charles Henry Hart. Browere's life masks of great Americans. Printed at the De Vinne Press for Doubleday and McClure Company, 1899. Google books
    38. Jump up ^ "Gilbert Stuart Birthplace and Museum". Gilbert Stuart Museum. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 
    39. Jump up ^ Mason 1879, pp. 125–283.
    40. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mantle 1929.
    41. Jump up ^ Carter, Harvey Lewis (1987). The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01318-2. 


  • Fielding, Mantle (1929). "Paintings by Gilbert Stuart not mentioned in Mason's Life of Stuart". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (The Historical Society of Pennsylvania) 53 (2). JSTOR 20086696. 
  • McLanathan, Richard (1986). Gilbert Stuart. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 9780810915015. 
  • Mason, George C. (1879). The Life and Works of Gilbert Stuart. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

External links


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gilbert Stuart.


Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert
Francois-Xavier Fabre
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting  (772)
Oil on canvas
35 x 43 cm

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Francois-Xavier Fabre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-08-03



Portrait of Lord Holland by François-Xavier Fabre, painted in 1795

François-Xavier Fabre (1 April 1766 – 16 March 1837) was a French painter of historical subjects.

Born in Montpellier, Fabre was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David, and made his name by winning the Prix de Rome in 1787. During the French Revolution, he went to live in Florence, becoming a member of the Florentine Academy and a teacher of art. The friends he made in Italy included the dramatist, Vittorio Alfieri, whose widow, Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Countess of Albany, he is said to have married. On Louise's death in 1824, he inherited her fortune, which he used to found an art school in his home town. On his own death, he bequeathed his own art collection to the town, forming the basis of the Musée Fabre.


Fabre began his training in the Montpellier's art academy, where he spent several years prior to joining Jacques-Louis David's studio in Paris. His studies were paid for by the financier and art collector, Philippe-Laurent de Joubert. Philippe-Laurent was the father of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert. Fabre painted a portrait of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert, which is now in the Getty Museum. Fabre gained popularity in Florence. The city's Italian aristocrats and tourists were drawn to his elegance, realism, and precision of his portraits. This popularity earned Fabre a place in the Florentine Academy. He became an art teacher, art collector, and art dealer in Florence.[1]

Fabre's works include The Dying Saint Sebastian (1789), The Judgment of Paris (1808), and The Death of Narcissus (1814).


Portrait of Edgar Clarke by François-Xavier Fabre.


Fabre's portrait of Vittorio Alfieri.


Portrait of Mrs Clarke with her Four Children, 1810.


Countess de Haussonville
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting
Oil on canvas
34 x 47 cm

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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-11-19


Description: Ingres, Self-portrait.jpg

Self-portrait at age 24, 1804 (revised c. 1850), oil on canvas, 78 x 61 cm, Musée Condé


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
(1780-08-29)29 August 1780
Montauban, Languedoc, France


14 January 1867(1867-01-14) (aged 86)
Paris, France

Known for

Painting, drawing

Notable work

Louis-François Bertin, 1832
The Turkish Bath, 1862



Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (French: [ʒɑnoɡyst dominik ɛ̃ɡʁ]; 29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.


A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis, Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were "the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator."[1] Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time,[2] while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

Early years


The Envoys of Agamemnon, 1801, oil on canvas, École des Beaux Arts, Paris

Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, the first of seven children (five of whom survived infancy) of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814) and his wife Anne Moulet (1758–1817). His father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of miniatures, sculptor, decorative stonemason, and amateur musician; his mother was the nearly illiterate daughter of a master wigmaker.[3] From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, a study after an antique cast, was made in 1789.[4] Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de l'Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the French Revolution, and the closing of the school in 1791 marked the end of his conventional education. The deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity.[5]

In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and the neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques. Roques' veneration of Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist.[6] Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure and antique", and life studies.[7] His musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, and from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse.[7]

In Paris

In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first prize in drawing, and in August he traveled to Paris to study with Jacques-Louis David, France's—and Europe's—leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example but revealed, according to David, "a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies."[8] He was admitted to the Painting Department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799, and won, after tying for second place in 1800, the Grand Prix de Rome in 1801 for his The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. His trip to Rome, however, was postponed until 1806, when the financially strained government finally appropriated the travel funds.


Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne, 1806, oil on canvas, 260 x 163 cm, Musée de l'Armée, Paris

Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman.[7] In 1802 he made his debut at the Salon with Portrait of a Woman (the current whereabouts of which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque, Brussels, and Ghent, all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville.[9] Napoleon is not known to have granted the artists a sitting, and Ingres's meticulously painted portrait of Bonaparte, First Consul appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon painted by Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802.[10]


Madame Rivière, 1806, oil on canvas, 116.5 x 81.7 cm, Louvre

In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for Rome in September. Although he had hoped to stay in Paris long enough to witness the opening of that year's Salon, in which he was to display several works, he reluctantly left for Italy just days before the opening.[11] At the Salon, his paintings—Self-Portrait, portraits of the Rivière family, and Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne—produced a disturbing impression on the public, due to not only Ingres's stylistic idiosyncrasies but also his adoption of Carolingian imagery in representing Napoleon.[12] David delivered a severe judgement,[4] and the critics were uniformly hostile, finding fault with the strange discordances of colour, the want of sculptural relief, the chilly precision of contour, and the self-consciously archaic quality. Chaussard (Le Pausanias Français, 1806) condemned Ingres's style as gothic and asked:

How, with so much talent, a line so flawless, an attention to detail so thorough, has M. Ingres succeeded in painting a bad picture? The answer is that he wanted to do something singular, something extraordinary ... M. Ingres's intention is nothing less than to make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy, to revive the manner of Jean de Bruges.[13]

Ingres' stylistic eclecticism represented a new tendency in art. The Louvre, newly filled with booty seized by Napoleon in his campaigns in Italy and the Low Countries, provided French artists of the early 19th century with an unprecedented opportunity to study, compare, and copy masterworks from antiquity and from the entire history of European painting.[14] As art historian Marjorie Cohn has written: "At the time, art history as a scholarly enquiry was brand-new. Artists and critics outdid each other in their attempts to identify, interpret, and exploit what they were just beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments."[15] From the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier art, adopting the historical style appropriate to his subject, leading critics to charge him with plundering the past.

Newly arrived in Rome, Ingres read with mounting indignation the relentlessly negative press clippings sent to him from Paris by his friends. In letters to his prospective father-in-law, he expressed his outrage at the critics: "So the Salon is the scene of my disgrace; ... The scoundrels, they waited until I was away to assassinate my reputation ... I have never been so unhappy." He vowed never again to exhibit at the Salon, and his refusal to return to Paris led to the breaking up of his engagement.[16] Julie Forestier, when asked years later why she had never married, responded, "When one has had the honor of being engaged to M. Ingres, one does not marry."[17]

In Rome[edit]


Ingres' portrait of fellow student Merry-Joseph Blondel in front of the Villa Medici in 1809

Installed in a studio on the grounds of the Villa Medici, Ingres continued his studies and, as required of every winner of the Prix, he sent works at regular intervals to Paris so his progress could be judged. As his envoi of 1808 Ingres sent Oedipus and the Sphinx and The Valpinçon Bather (both now in the Louvre), hoping by these two paintings to demonstrate his mastery of the male and female nude.[18] The verdict of the academicians was that the figures were not sufficiently idealized.[19] In later years Ingres painted variants of both compositions; another nude begun in 1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an unfinished state for decades, to be completed forty years later and finally exhibited in 1855.

He produced numerous portraits during this period: Madame Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet, Edme-François-Joseph Bochet, Madame Panckoucke, and that of Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of the prefect of the department of the Tiber. In 1810 Ingres's pension at the Villa Medici ended, but he decided to stay in Rome and seek patronage from the French occupation government.

In 1811 Ingres finished his final student exercise, the immense Jupiter and Thetis, which was once again harshly judged in Paris.[20] Ingres was stung; the public was indifferent, and the strict classicists among his fellow artists looked upon him as a renegade. Only Eugène Delacroix and other pupils of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin—the leaders of that romantic movement for which Ingres throughout his long life always expressed the deepest abhorrence—seem to have recognized his merits.

Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813 Ingres married a young woman, Madeleine Chapelle, who had been recommended to him by her friends in Rome. After a courtship carried out through correspondence, he proposed to her without having met her, and she accepted.[21] Their marriage was a happy one, and Madame Ingres acquired a faith in her husband which enabled her to combat with courage and patience the difficulties of their common existence. He continued to suffer the indignity of disparaging reviews, as Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Raphael and the Fornarina (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University), several portraits, and the Interior of the Sistine Chapel met a generally hostile critical response at the Paris Salon of 1814.[22]


Virgil reading to Augustus, 1812, oil on canvas, 304 x 323 cm, Musée des Augustins, Toulouse

A few important commissions came to him. Notably, the French governor of Rome asked him to paint Virgil reading the Aeneid (1812) for his residence, and to paint two colossal works—Romulus's victory over Acron (1812) and The Dream of Ossian (1813)—for Monte Cavallo, a former Papal residence undergoing renovation to become Napoleon's Roman palace. These paintings epitomized, both in subject and scale, the type of painting with which Ingres was determined to make his reputation, but, as Philip Conisbee has written, "for all the high ideals that had been drummed into Ingres at the academies in Toulouse, Paris, and Rome, such commissions were exceptions to the rule, for in reality there was little demand for history paintings in the grand manner, even in the city of Raphael and Michelangelo."[23] Art collectors preferred "light-hearted mythologies, recognizable scenes of everyday life, landscapes, still lifes, or likenesses of men and women of their own class. This preference persisted throughout the nineteenth century, as academically oriented artists waited and hoped for the patronage of state or church to satisfy their more elevated ambitions."[24]


Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil on canvas, 91 x 162 cm, Louvre. The subject's elongated proportions, reminiscent of 16th-century Mannerist painters, reflect Ingres's search for the pure form of his model.

Ingres traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814 to paint Queen Caroline Murat, and the Murat family ordered additional portraits as well as three modestly scaled works: The Betrothal of Raphael, La Grande Odalisque, and Paolo and Francesca. Apart from the Betrothal, however, he never received payment for these paintings, due to the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815.[25] With the fall of Napoleon's dynasty, he found himself essentially stranded in Rome without patronage.

During this low point of his career, Ingres made his living by drawing pencil portraits of the many tourists, in particular the English, passing through postwar Rome. For an artist who aspired to a reputation as a history painter, this seemed menial work, and to the visitors who knocked on his door asking, "Is this where the man who draws the little portraits lives?", he would answer with irritation, "No, the man who lives here is a painter!"[26] Nevertheless, the portrait drawings he produced in such profusion during this period are of outstanding quality, and rank today among his most admired works.[27]

Mining the vein of the small-scale historical genre piece, in 1815 he painted Aretino and Charles V's Ambassador as well as Aretino and Tintoretto, an anecdotal painting whose subject, a painter brandishing a pistol at his critic, may have been especially satisfying to the embattled Ingres.[28] Among his other paintings in the same Troubadour style were Henry IV Playing with His Children (1817) and the Death of Leonardo (1818). In 1817 the Count of Blacas, who was ambassador of France to the Holy See, provided Ingres with his first official commission since 1814, for a painting of Christ Giving the Keys to Peter. Completed in 1820, this imposing work was well received in Rome but to the artist's chagrin the ecclesiastical authorities there would not permit it to be sent to Paris for exhibition.

A commission came in 1816 or 1817 from the family of the celebrated Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva, for a painting of the Duke receiving papal honours for his repression of the Protestant Reformation. Ingres loathed the subject—he regarded the Duke as one of history's brutes—and struggled to satisfy both the commission and his conscience. After revisions which eventually reduced the Duke to a tiny figure in the background, Ingres left the work unfinished.[29] He entered in his diary, "J'etais forcé par la necessité de peindre un pareil tableau; Dieu a voulu qu'il reste en ebauche." ("I was forced by need to paint such a painting; God wanted it to remain a sketch.")[30]

During this period, Ingres formed friendships with musicians including Paganini, and regularly played the violin with others who shared his enthusiasm for Mozart, Haydn, Gluck, and Beethoven.[20] The works he sent to the 1819 Salon were La Grande Odalisque, Philip V and the Marshal of Berwick, and Roger Freeing Angelica, which were once again condemned as "gothic" by critics.[31]

In Florence

Ingres and his wife moved to Florence in 1820 at the urging of the Florentine sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, an old friend from his years in Paris, who hoped that Ingres would improve his position materially, but Ingres, as before, had to rely on his drawings of tourists and diplomats for support. His friendship with Bartolini, whose worldly success in the intervening years stood in sharp contrast to Ingres's poverty, quickly became strained, and Ingres found new quarters.[32] In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend, Monsieur de Pastoret, the Entry of Charles V into Paris; de Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a religious work (Virgin with the Blue Veil). The major undertaking of this period, however, was a commission obtained in August 1820 with the help of de Pastoret, to paint The Vow of Louis XIII for the Cathedral of Montauban. Recognizing this as an opportunity to establish himself as a painter of history, he spent four years bringing the large canvas to completion, and he travelled to Paris with it in October 1824.


Portrait of Louis-François Bertin, 1832, oil on canvas, 116 x 96 cm, Louvre

Triumphal return to Paris and angry retreat to Rome

The Vow of Louis XIII, exhibited at the Salon of 1824, finally brought Ingres critical success. Conceived in a Raphaelesque style relatively free of the archaisms for which he had been reproached in the past, it was admired even by strict Davidians. Ingres found himself celebrated throughout France; in January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the Légion d'honneur by Charles X, and in June 1825 he was elected to the Institute. His fame was extended further in 1826 by the publication of Sudre's lithograph of La Grande Odalisque, which, having been scorned by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular.

A commission from the government called forth the monumental Apotheosis of Homer, which Ingres eagerly finished in a year's time. From 1826 to 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, and he was a recognized chef d'école who taught with authority and wisdom while working steadily. The critics came to regard Ingres as the standard-bearer of classicism against the romantic school[33]—a role he relished. The paintings, primarily portraits, that he sent to the Salon in 1827 were well received.

Despite the considerable patronage he enjoyed under the Bourbon government, Ingres regarded the July Revolution of 1830 with enthusiasm.[34] That the outcome of the Revolution was not a republic but a constitutional monarchy was satisfactory to the essentially conservative and pacifistic artist, who in a letter to a friend in August 1830 criticized agitators who "still want to soil and disturb the order and happiness of a freedom so gloriously, so divinely won."[35] Ingres's career was little affected, and he continued to receive official commissions and honors under the July Monarchy.

Ingres exhibited in the Salon of 1833, where his portrait of Louis-François Bertin (1832) was a particular success. The public found its realism spellbinding, although some of the critics declared its naturalism vulgar and its colouring drab.[36] The thin-skinned artist was outraged, however, by the criticism of his ambitious canvas of The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian (cathedral of Autun), shown in the Salon of 1834. Resentful and disgusted, Ingres resolved never again to work for the public, and gladly availed himself of the opportunity to return to Rome, as director of the École de France, in the room of Horace Vernet. There, although the time he spent in administrative duties slowed the flow of paintings from his brush, he executed Antiochus and Stratonice (commissioned by Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orléans), Portrait of Luigi Cherubini, and the Odalisque with Slave, among other works. In 1839, Franz Liszt visited the Villa Medici, and Ingres formed a friendship with him.[37]

Paris, 1841–1867[edit]


The Turkish Bath, 1862, oil on canvas, diam. 108 cm, Louvre. A summation of the theme of female voluptuousness attractive to Ingres throughout his life, rendered in the circular format of earlier masters.

One of only two works sent back to Paris during Ingres's six-year term as Director of the French Academy in Rome, the Stratonice was exhibited for several days in mid-August 1840 in the private apartment of the duc d'Orléans in the Pavilion Marsan of the Palais des Tuileries.[38] While lampooned in Le Corsaire for its lofty subject matter yet extremely modest proportions (less than one metre across), overall the work was warmly received; so much so that on his return to Paris in June 1841, Ingres was received with all the deference that he felt was his due, including being received personally by King Louis-Philippe for a tour around Versailles. One of the first works executed after his return was a portrait of the duc d'Orléans, whose death in a carriage accident just weeks after the completion of the portrait sent the nation into mourning and led to orders for additional copies of the portrait.


Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1864,[39] oil on canvas, 105.5 x 87 cm, The Walters Art Museum

Ingres shortly afterward began the decorations of the great hall in the Château de Dampierre. These murals, the Golden Age and the Iron Age, were begun in 1843 with an ardour which gradually slackened until Ingres, devastated by the loss of his wife on 27 July 1849, abandoned all hope of their completion and the contract with the Duc de Luynes was finally cancelled. A minor work, Jupiter and Antiope, dates from 1851; in July of that year he announced a gift of his artwork to his native city of Montauban, and in October he resigned as professor at the École des Beaux-Arts.

The following year Ingres, at seventy-one years of age, married forty-three-year-old Delphine Ramel, a relative of his friend Marcotte d'Argenteuil. This marriage proved as happy as his first, and in the decade that followed Ingres completed several significant works. A major undertaking was the Apotheosis of Napoleon I, painted in 1853 for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and destroyed by fire in the Commune of 1871. The portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie was also completed in 1853, and Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII appeared in 1854. The latter was largely the work of assistants, whom Ingres often entrusted with the execution of backgrounds. In 1855 Ingres consented to rescind his resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in favour of the International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for his works.[40]

Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, president of the jury, proposed an exceptional recompense for their author, and obtained from emperor Napoleon III Ingres's nomination as grand officer of the Légion d'honneur.


The Virgin Adoring the Host, 1852

With renewed confidence Ingres now took up and completed The Source, a figure for which he had painted the torso in 1820; when it was seen with other works in London in 1862, admiration for his works was renewed, and he was given the title of senator by the imperial government.

After the completion of The Source, Ingres painted two versions of Louis XIV and Molière (1857 and 1860), and produced variant copies of several of his earlier compositions. These included religious works in which the figure of the Virgin from The Vow of Louis XIII is reprised: The Virgin of the Adoption of 1858 (painted for Mademoiselle Roland-Gosselin) was followed by The Virgin Crowned (painted for Madame la Baronne de Larinthie) and The Virgin with Child. In 1859 he produced repetitions of The Virgin of the Host, and in 1862 he completed Christ and the Doctors, a work commissioned many years before by Queen Marie Amalie for the chapel of Bizy.

The last of his important portrait paintings date from this period: Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier, Seated (1856), Self-Portrait at the Age of Seventy-nine and Madame J.-A.-D. Ingres, née Delphine Ramel, both completed in 1859. The Turkish Bath, finished in a rectangular format in 1859, was revised in 1860 before being turned into a tondo. Ingres signed and dated it in 1862, although he made additional revisions in 1863.[41]

Ingres died of pneumonia on 14 January 1867, at the age of eighty-six, having preserved his faculties to the last. He is interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris with a tomb sculpted by his student Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. The contents of his studio, including a number of major paintings, over 4000 drawings, and his violin, were bequeathed by the artist to the city museum of Montauban, now known as the Musée Ingres.[42]



Odalisque with Slave, 1842, oil on canvas, 76 x 105 cm, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore

Ingres's style was formed early in life and changed comparatively little.[43] His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (or Portrait of an unknown, 3 July 1797, now in the Louvre[44]) already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his often-quoted conviction that "drawing is the probity of art".[45] He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing, explaining: "Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is seven eighths of what makes up painting."[46]

He abhorred the visible brushstroke and made no recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in light by half tones. "Ce que l'on sait," he would repeat, "il faut le savoir l'épée à la main." ("Whatever you know, you must know it with sword in hand.") Ingres thus left himself without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian. Among Ingres's historical and mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or two figures. In Oedipus, The Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being, we find Ingres at his best.


Roger Freeing Angelica, 1819, oil on canvas, 147 x 190 cm, Louvre, portrays an episode from Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto

In Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest qualities of Ingres's work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the rescue on his hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely successful in the depiction of movement and drama. According to Sanford Schwartz, the "historical, mythological, and religious pictures bespeak huge amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying little palpable sense of inner tension, are costume dramas ... The faces in the history pictures are essentially those of models waiting for the session to be over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it comes across stridently, or woodenly."[47]

Ingres's choice of subjects reflected his literary tastes, which were severely limited: he read and reread Homer, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante, histories, and the lives of the artists.[15] Throughout his life he revisited a small number of favourite themes, and painted multiple versions of many of his major compositions.[48] He did not share his age's enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally preferred to depict "moments of revelation or intimate decision manifested by meeting or confrontation, but never by violence."[49] His numerous odalisque paintings were influenced to a great extent by the writings of Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose diaries and letters, when published, fascinated European society.[50]

Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over a painting. Ingres's pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: "With this facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres' oeuvre is not still larger, but he scraped out [his work] frequently, never being satisfied ... and perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too."[51] The Source, although dated 1856, was painted about 1820,[52] except for the head and the extremities; Amaury-Duval, who knew the work in its incomplete state, professed that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso.[53]

By the time of Ingres's retrospective at the Exposition Universelle in 1855, an emerging consensus viewed his portrait paintings as his masterpieces.[54] Their consistently high quality belies Ingres's often-stated complaint that the demands of portraiture robbed him of time he could have spent painting historical subjects. The most famous of all of Ingres's portraits, depicting the journalist Louis-François Bertin, quickly became a symbol of the rising economic and political power of the bourgeoisie.[55] His portraits of women range from the warmly sensuous Madame de Senonnes (1814) to the realistic Mademoiselle Jeanne Gonin (1821), the Junoesque Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier (portrayed standing and seated, 1851 and 1856), and the chilly Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, Princesse de Broglie (1853).


Mme Victor Baltard and Her Daughter, Paule, 1836, pencil on paper, 30.1 x 22.3 cm

His portrait drawings, of which about 450 are extant,[56] are today among his most admired works. While a disproportionate number of them date from his difficult early years in Italy, he continued to produce portrait drawings of his friends until the end of his life. Agnes Mongan has written of the portrait drawings:

Before his departure in the fall of 1806 from Paris for Rome, the familiar characteristics of his drawing style were well established, the delicate yet firm contour, the definite yet discreet distortions of form, the almost uncanny capacity to seize a likeness in the precise yet lively delineation of features.

The preferred materials were also already established: the sharply pointed graphite pencil on a smooth white paper. So familiar to us are both the materials and the manner that we forget how extraordinary they must have seemed at the time ... Ingres' manner of drawing was as new as the century. It was immediately recognized as expert and admirable. If his paintings were sternly criticized as "Gothic," no comparable criticism was leveled at his drawings.[57]

His student Robert Balze described Ingres's working routine in executing his portrait drawings, each of which required four hours, as "an hour and a half in the morning, then two-and-a-half hours in the afternoon, he very rarely retouched it the next day. He often told me that he got the essence of the portrait while lunching with the model who, off guard, became more natural."[58] Ingres drew his portrait drawings on wove paper, which provided a smooth surface very different from the ribbed surface of laid paper (which is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to today as "Ingres paper").[59]

Drawings made in preparation for paintings, such as the many nude studies for The Martyrdom of St. Symphorian and The Golden Age, are more varied in size and treatment than are the portrait drawings. He also drew a number of landscape views while in Rome, but he painted only one pure landscape, the small tondo Raphael's Casino (although two other small landscape tondos are sometimes attributed to him).[60]



Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres commemorated on a postage stamp of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1980. The 1856 painting The Source is in the background.

Ingres was regarded as an effective teacher and was beloved by his students.[61] The best known of them is Théodore Chassériau, who studied with him from 1830, as a precocious eleven-year-old, until Ingres closed his studio in 1834 to return to Rome. Ingres considered Chassériau his truest disciple—even predicting, according to an early biographer, that he would be "the Napoleon of painting".[62] By the time Chassériau visited Ingres in Rome in 1840, however, the younger artist's growing allegiance to the romantic style of Delacroix was apparent, leading Ingres to disown his favourite student, of whom he subsequently spoke rarely and censoriously. No other artist who studied under Ingres succeeded in establishing a strong identity; among the most notable of them were Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin, Henri Lehmann, and Eugène Emmanuel Amaury-Duval.

Ingres's influence on later generations of artists has been considerable. His most significant heir was Degas, who studied under Louis Lamothe, a minor disciple of Ingres. In the 20th century, Picasso and Matisse were among those who acknowledged a debt to the great classicist; Matisse described him as the first painter "to use pure colours, outlining them without distorting them."[63] Pierre Barousse, the Keeper of the Musée Ingres, has written:

The case of Ingres is certainly disturbing when one realizes in how many ways a variety of artists claim him as their master, from the most plainly conventional of the nineteenth century such as Cabanel or Bouguereau, to the most revolutionary of our century from Matisse to Picasso. A classicist? Above all, he was moved by the impulse to penetrate the secret of natural beauty and to reinterpret it through its own means; an attitude fundamentally different to that of David ... there results a truly personal and unique art admired as much by the Cubists for its plastic autonomy, as by the Surrealists for its visionary qualities.[64]

Barnett Newman credited Ingres as a progenitor of abstract expressionism, explaining: "That guy was an abstract painter ... He looked at the canvas more often than at the model. Kline, de Kooning—none of us would have existed without him."[65]

Ingres's well-known passion for playing the violin gave to the French language a colloquialism, "violon d'Ingres", meaning a second skill beyond the one by which a person is mainly known. The American avant-garde artist Man Ray used this expression as the title of a famous photograph[66] portraying Alice Prin (aka Kiki de Montparnasse) in the pose of the Valpinçon Bather.

His actual skill on the violin is a matter of dispute. He played Beethoven string quartets with Niccolò Paganini. In an 1839 letter, Franz Liszt described his playing as "charming", and planned to play through all the Mozart and Beethoven violin sonatas with Ingres. Liszt also dedicated his transcriptions of the 5th and 6th symphonies of Beethoven to Ingres on their original publication in 1840.[67] Charles Gounod was non-committal, merely noting that "he was not a professional, even less a virtuoso". But Sir Charles Hallé was scathing, writing "He thought less of his paintings than his violin playing, which, to say the least of it, was vile".[68]



Academic Study of a Male Torso, 1801, National Museum in Warsaw

The Valpinçon Bather, 1808, Louvre

Marcotte d'Argenteuil, 1810, National Gallery of Art

Jupiter and Thetis, 1811, Musée Granet in Aix-en-Provence

Portrait of Niccolò Paganini, 1819

Mademoiselle Jeanne-Suzanne-Catherine Gonin, 1821, Taft Museum of Art

Baronne de Rothschild, 1848, Rothschild Collection, Paris

Louise de Broglie, Countess d'Haussonville, 1845, Frick Collection

Princesse Albert de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, 1853, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, 1854, Louvre

The Source, 1856, Musée d'Orsay

Mme. Moitessier, 1856, National Gallery


Ingres's tomb, Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris


    1. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 14.
    2. Jump up ^ Turner 2000, p. 237.
    3. Jump up ^ Parker 1926
    4. ^ Jump up to: a b Arikha 1986, p. 103.
    5. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 25, 280.
    6. Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 15.
    7. ^ Jump up to: a b c Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xix.
    8. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 31.
    9. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 46.
    10. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 48.
    11. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 22.
    12. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 68.
    13. Jump up ^ Quoted and translated in Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 70.
    14. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 27.
    15. ^ Jump up to: a b Condon et al. 1983, p. 13.
    16. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 546.
    17. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 75.
    18. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 38.
    19. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp 98–101.
    20. ^ Jump up to: a b Arikha 1986, p. 104.
    21. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 152–154.
    22. Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xx.
    23. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 106.
    24. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 26.
    25. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 50; Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 147.
    26. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 111.
    27. Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xvii.
    28. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 12.
    29. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 86.
    30. Jump up ^ Delaborde 1870, p. 229.
    31. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, pp. 22–23.
    32. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, pp. 23, 114
    33. Jump up ^ Siegfried & Rifkin 2001, p. 78–81.
    34. Jump up ^ Grimme 2006, p. 30.
    35. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 281–282.
    36. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 503.
    37. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 550.
    38. Jump up ^ Shelton, Andrew Carrington (2005). Ingres and his Critics. Cambridge University Press, p. 61.
    39. Jump up ^ "Oedipus and the Sphinx". The Walters Art Museum. 
    40. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 554.
    41. Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 90.
    42. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 25.
    43. Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 5.
    44. Jump up ^ "Portrait of an unknown, since the bust, left profile - Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres -". 
    45. Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 13.
    46. Jump up ^ Barousse 1979, p. 5.
    47. Jump up ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 5.
    48. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, pp. 12–13.
    49. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, pp. 11–12.
    50. Jump up ^ "Highlights" (10). Cornucopia. 
    51. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 11.
    52. Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 64; Radius 1968, p. 115.
    53. Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 75.
    54. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 512.
    55. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 300.
    56. Jump up ^ Ribeiro 1999, p. 47.
    57. Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xiii.
    58. Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 6.
    59. Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. 244.
    60. Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 1.
    61. Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 281.
    62. Jump up ^ Guégan et al. 2002, p. 168.
    63. Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 11.
    64. Jump up ^ Barousse 1979, p. 7.
    65. Jump up ^ Schneider 1969, p. 39.
    66. Jump up ^ "Le Violon d'Ingres (Ingres's Violin) (Getty Museum)". 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
    67. Jump up ^ Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed, 1954, Vol. V, p. 299: "Franz Liszt: Catalogue of Works".
    68. Jump up ^ Williams, Sam (October 2010). Limelight. "Le Violon d'Ingres'".


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  • Radius, Emilio (1968). L'opera completa di Ingres. Milan: Rizzoli. OCLC 58818848
  • Ribeiro, Aileen (1999). Ingres in Fashion: Representations of Dress and Appearance in Ingres's Images of Women. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07927-3
  • Schneider, Pierre (June 1969). "Through the Louvre with Barnett Newman". ARTnews. pp. 34–72.
  • Schwartz, Sanford (13 July 2006). "Ingres vs. Ingres". The New York Review of Books 53 (12): 4–6.
  • Siegfried, S. L., & Rifkin, A. (2001). Fingering Ingres. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22526-9
  • Tinterow, Gary; Conisbee, Philip; Naef, Hans (1999). Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-6536-4
  • Turner, J. (2000). From Monet to Cézanne: Late 19th-century French Artists. Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22971-2


Further reading

External links


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