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Self-portrait at age 24, 1804 (revised c. 1850),
oil on canvas, 78 x 61 cm,
(1780-08-29)29 August 1780
14 January 1867(1867-01-14)
Louis-François Bertin, 1832
The Turkish Bath, 1862
Ingres (French: [ʒɑnoɡyst
dominik ɛ̃ɡʁ]; 29 August 1780 14 January 1867) was a
painter. Although he considered himself to be a
painter of history in the tradition of
Nicolas Poussin and
Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's
portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his
A man profoundly respectful of the past, he
assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the
Romantic style represented by his nemesis,
Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were "the
great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory
Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime
in art ... I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not
Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the
other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of
while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an
important precursor of
The Envoys of Agamemnon, 1801, oil on canvas, École des
Beaux Arts, Paris
Ingres was born in
Tarn-et-Garonne, France, the first of seven children (five of whom
survived infancy) of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (17551814) and his wife
Anne Moulet (17581817). His father was a successful
jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of
miniatures, sculptor, decorative stonemason, and amateur musician;
his mother was the nearly illiterate daughter of a master wigmaker.
From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and
instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, a study
after an antique cast, was made in 1789.
Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de
l'Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil
French Revolution, and the closing of the school in 1791 marked
the end of his conventional education. The deficiency in his schooling
would always remain for him a source of insecurity.
In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to
Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in
the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he
studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter
Jean Briant, and the neoclassical painter
Guillaume-Joseph Roques. Roques' veneration of
Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist.
Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure
and antique", and life studies.
His musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist
Lejeune, and from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second
violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse.
In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first
prize in drawing, and in August he traveled to
to study with
Jacques-Louis David, France'sand Europe'sleading painter during
the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years.
Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example but revealed,
according to David, "a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies."
He was admitted to the Painting Department of the
École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799, and won, after tying for
second place in 1800, the Grand
Prix de Rome in 1801 for his
The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. His
trip to Rome, however, was postponed until 1806, when the financially
strained government finally appropriated the travel funds.
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne, 1806, oil on canvas, 260
x 163 cm,
Musée de l'Armée, Paris
Working in Paris alongside several other students
of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a
style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the
works of Raphael, in
Etruscan vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the
In 1802 he made his debut at the
Salon with Portrait of a Woman (the current whereabouts of
which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious
commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with
Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and
Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of
Napoleon Bonaparte as
First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural
all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801
Treaty of Lunéville.
Napoleon is not known to have granted the artists a sitting, and
Ingres's meticulously painted portrait of
Bonaparte, First Consul appears to be modelled on an image
of Napoleon painted by
Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802.
Madame Rivière, 1806, oil on canvas, 116.5
x 81.7 cm,
In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to
Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for
September. Although he had hoped to stay in Paris long enough to
witness the opening of that year's Salon, in which he was to display
several works, he reluctantly left for Italy just days before the
At the Salon, his paintingsSelf-Portrait, portraits of the
Rivière family, and
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throneproduced a disturbing
impression on the public, due to not only Ingres's stylistic
idiosyncrasies but also his adoption of
Carolingian imagery in representing Napoleon.
David delivered a severe judgement,
and the critics were uniformly hostile, finding fault with the strange
discordances of colour, the want of sculptural relief, the chilly
precision of contour, and the self-consciously archaic quality.
Chaussard (Le Pausanias Français, 1806) condemned Ingres's
style as gothic and asked:
How, with so much talent, a line so flawless, an
attention to detail so thorough, has M. Ingres succeeded in painting a
bad picture? The answer is that he wanted to do something singular,
something extraordinary ... M. Ingres's intention is nothing less than
to make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy,
to revive the manner of
Jean de Bruges.
Ingres' stylistic eclecticism represented a new
tendency in art. The
newly filled with booty seized by Napoleon in his campaigns in
Low Countries, provided French artists of the early 19th century
with an unprecedented opportunity to study, compare, and copy
masterworks from antiquity and from the entire history of European
As art historian Marjorie Cohn has written: "At the time, art history
as a scholarly enquiry was brand-new. Artists and critics outdid each
other in their attempts to identify, interpret, and exploit what they
were just beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments."
From the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier
art, adopting the historical style appropriate to his subject, leading
critics to charge him with plundering the past.
Newly arrived in Rome, Ingres read with mounting
indignation the relentlessly negative press clippings sent to him from
Paris by his friends. In letters to his prospective father-in-law, he
expressed his outrage at the critics: "So the Salon is the scene of my
disgrace; ... The scoundrels, they waited until I was away to
assassinate my reputation ... I have never been so unhappy." He vowed
never again to exhibit at the Salon, and his refusal to return to
Paris led to the breaking up of his engagement.
Julie Forestier, when asked years later why she had never married,
responded, "When one has had the honor of being engaged to M. Ingres,
one does not marry."
Ingres' portrait of fellow student
Merry-Joseph Blondel in front of the Villa Medici in 1809
Installed in a studio on the grounds of the
Villa Medici, Ingres continued his studies and, as required of
every winner of the Prix, he sent works at regular intervals to
Paris so his progress could be judged. As his envoi of 1808
Oedipus and the Sphinx and
The Valpinçon Bather (both now in the
hoping by these two paintings to demonstrate his mastery of the male
and female nude.
The verdict of the academicians was that the figures were not
In later years Ingres painted variants of both compositions; another
nude begun in 1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an
unfinished state for decades, to be completed forty years later and
finally exhibited in 1855.
He produced numerous portraits during this
period: Madame Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet,
Edme-François-Joseph Bochet, Madame Panckoucke, and that of
Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of the prefect of the department
Tiber. In 1810 Ingres's pension at the Villa Medici ended, but he
decided to stay in Rome and seek patronage from the French occupation
In 1811 Ingres finished his final student
exercise, the immense
Jupiter and Thetis, which was once again harshly judged in
Ingres was stung; the public was indifferent, and the strict
classicists among his fellow artists looked upon him as a renegade.
Eugène Delacroix and other pupils of
Pierre-Narcisse Guérinthe leaders of that romantic movement for
which Ingres throughout his long life always expressed the deepest
abhorrenceseem to have recognized his merits.
Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813
Ingres married a young woman, Madeleine Chapelle, who had been
recommended to him by her friends in Rome. After a courtship carried
out through correspondence, he proposed to her without having met her,
and she accepted.
Their marriage was a happy one, and Madame Ingres acquired a faith in
her husband which enabled her to combat with courage and patience the
difficulties of their common existence. He continued to suffer the
indignity of disparaging reviews, as
Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Raphael
and the Fornarina (Fogg
Harvard University), several portraits, and the Interior of the
Sistine Chapel met a generally hostile critical response at
the Paris Salon of 1814.
Virgil reading to Augustus, 1812, oil on
canvas, 304 x 323 cm,
Musée des Augustins, Toulouse
A few important commissions came to him. Notably,
the French governor of Rome asked him to paint
Virgil reading the
Aeneid (1812) for his residence, and to paint two colossal
victory over Acron (1812) and The Dream of Ossian
Monte Cavallo, a former Papal residence undergoing renovation to
become Napoleon's Roman palace. These paintings epitomized, both in
subject and scale, the type of painting with which Ingres was
determined to make his reputation, but, as Philip Conisbee has written,
"for all the high ideals that had been drummed into Ingres at the
academies in Toulouse, Paris, and Rome, such commissions were
exceptions to the rule, for in reality there was little demand for
history paintings in the grand manner, even in the city of Raphael and
Art collectors preferred "light-hearted mythologies, recognizable
scenes of everyday life, landscapes, still lifes, or likenesses of men
and women of their own class. This preference persisted throughout the
nineteenth century, as academically oriented artists waited and hoped
for the patronage of state or church to satisfy their more elevated
Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil on canvas, 91 x 162 cm,
The subject's elongated proportions, reminiscent of 16th-century
Mannerist painters, reflect Ingres's search for the pure form of
Ingres traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814
to paint Queen
Caroline Murat, and the Murat family ordered additional
portraits as well as three modestly scaled works: The Betrothal of
La Grande Odalisque, and Paolo and Francesca. Apart
from the Betrothal, however, he never received payment for
these paintings, due to the collapse of the
Murat regime in 1815.
With the fall of Napoleon's dynasty, he found himself essentially
stranded in Rome without patronage.
During this low point of his career, Ingres made
his living by drawing pencil portraits of the many tourists, in
particular the English, passing through postwar Rome. For an artist
who aspired to a reputation as a history painter, this seemed menial
work, and to the visitors who knocked on his door asking, "Is this
where the man who draws the little portraits lives?", he would answer
with irritation, "No, the man who lives here is a painter!"
Nevertheless, the portrait drawings he produced in such profusion
during this period are of outstanding quality, and rank today among
his most admired works.
Mining the vein of the small-scale historical
genre piece, in 1815 he painted
Aretino and Charles V's Ambassador as well as Aretino
Tintoretto, an anecdotal painting whose subject, a painter
brandishing a pistol at his critic, may have been especially
satisfying to the embattled Ingres.
Among his other paintings in the same
Troubadour style were Henry IV Playing with His Children
(1817) and the Death of
Leonardo (1818). In 1817 the
Count of Blacas, who was ambassador of France to the
See, provided Ingres with his first official commission since
1814, for a painting of
Christ Giving the Keys to
Peter. Completed in 1820, this imposing work was well
received in Rome but to the artist's chagrin the ecclesiastical
authorities there would not permit it to be sent to Paris for
A commission came in 1816 or 1817 from the family
of the celebrated
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva, for a painting of the
Duke receiving papal honours for his repression of the
Protestant Reformation. Ingres loathed the subjecthe regarded the
Duke as one of history's brutesand struggled to satisfy both the
commission and his conscience. After revisions which eventually
reduced the Duke to a tiny figure in the background, Ingres left the
He entered in his diary, "J'etais forcé par la necessité de peindre un
pareil tableau; Dieu a voulu qu'il reste en ebauche." ("I was forced
by need to paint such a painting; God wanted it to remain a sketch.")
During this period, Ingres formed friendships
with musicians including
Paganini, and regularly played the violin with others who shared
his enthusiasm for
The works he sent to the 1819 Salon were
La Grande Odalisque,
Philip V and the Marshal of Berwick, and
Roger Freeing Angelica, which were once again condemned as
"gothic" by critics.
Ingres and his wife moved to
Florence in 1820 at the urging of the Florentine sculptor
Lorenzo Bartolini, an old friend from his years in Paris, who
hoped that Ingres would improve his position materially, but Ingres,
as before, had to rely on his drawings of tourists and diplomats for
support. His friendship with Bartolini, whose worldly success in the
intervening years stood in sharp contrast to Ingres's poverty, quickly
became strained, and Ingres found new quarters.
In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend,
Monsieur de Pastoret, the Entry of Charles V into Paris; de
Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a religious work (Virgin
with the Blue Veil). The major undertaking of this period, however,
was a commission obtained in August 1820 with the help of de Pastoret,
The Vow of Louis XIII for the Cathedral of Montauban.
Recognizing this as an opportunity to establish himself as a painter
of history, he spent four years bringing the large canvas to
completion, and he travelled to Paris with it in October 1824.
Portrait of Louis-François Bertin, 1832, oil on canvas, 116
x 96 cm, Louvre
Triumphal return to Paris and angry retreat to
The Vow of Louis XIII, exhibited at the
Salon of 1824, finally brought Ingres critical success. Conceived in a
Raphaelesque style relatively free of the archaisms for which he
had been reproached in the past, it was admired even by strict
Davidians. Ingres found himself celebrated throughout France; in
January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the
Légion d'honneur by
Charles X, and in June 1825 he was elected to the Institute. His
fame was extended further in 1826 by the publication of Sudre's
lithograph of La Grande Odalisque, which, having been
scorned by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely
A commission from the government called forth the
Apotheosis of Homer, which Ingres eagerly finished in a
year's time. From 1826 to 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, and
he was a recognized chef d'école who taught with authority and
wisdom while working steadily. The critics came to regard Ingres as
the standard-bearer of classicism against the romantic schoola
role he relished. The paintings, primarily portraits, that he sent to
the Salon in 1827 were well received.
Despite the considerable patronage he enjoyed
under the Bourbon government, Ingres regarded the
July Revolution of 1830 with enthusiasm.
That the outcome of the Revolution was not a republic but a
constitutional monarchy was satisfactory to the essentially
conservative and pacifistic artist, who in a letter to a friend in
August 1830 criticized agitators who "still want to soil and disturb
the order and happiness of a freedom so gloriously, so divinely won."
Ingres's career was little affected, and he continued to receive
official commissions and honors under the
Ingres exhibited in the Salon of 1833, where his
Louis-François Bertin (1832) was a particular success. The
public found its realism spellbinding, although some of the critics
declared its naturalism vulgar and its colouring drab.
The thin-skinned artist was outraged, however, by the criticism of his
ambitious canvas of
The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian (cathedral of
shown in the Salon of 1834. Resentful and disgusted, Ingres resolved
never again to work for the public, and gladly availed himself of the
opportunity to return to Rome, as director of the École de France, in
the room of
Horace Vernet. There, although the time he spent in administrative
duties slowed the flow of paintings from his brush, he executed
Antiochus and Stratonice (commissioned by
Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orléans), Portrait of
Luigi Cherubini, and the
Odalisque with Slave, among other works. In 1839,
Franz Liszt visited the Villa Medici, and Ingres formed a
friendship with him.
The Turkish Bath, 1862, oil on canvas, diam. 108 cm,
A summation of the theme of female voluptuousness attractive to Ingres
throughout his life, rendered in the circular format of earlier
One of only two works sent back to Paris during
Ingres's six-year term as Director of the French Academy in Rome, the
Stratonice was exhibited for several days in mid-August 1840 in
the private apartment of the duc d'Orléans in the Pavilion Marsan of
the Palais des Tuileries.
While lampooned in Le Corsaire for its lofty subject matter yet
extremely modest proportions (less than one metre across), overall the
work was warmly received; so much so that on his return to Paris in
June 1841, Ingres was received with all the deference that he felt was
his due, including being received personally by King Louis-Philippe
for a tour around Versailles. One of the first works executed after
his return was a portrait of the duc d'Orléans, whose death in a
carriage accident just weeks after the completion of the portrait sent
the nation into mourning and led to orders for additional copies of
Oedipus and the Sphinx, 1864,
oil on canvas, 105.5 x 87 cm, The Walters Art Museum
Ingres shortly afterward began the decorations of
the great hall in the
Château de Dampierre. These
the Golden Age and the Iron Age, were begun in 1843 with
an ardour which gradually slackened until Ingres, devastated by the
loss of his wife on 27 July 1849, abandoned all hope of their
completion and the contract with the Duc de Luynes was finally
cancelled. A minor work, Jupiter and
Antiope, dates from 1851; in July of that year he announced
a gift of his artwork to his native city of Montauban, and in October
he resigned as professor at the École des Beaux-Arts.
The following year Ingres, at seventy-one years
of age, married forty-three-year-old Delphine Ramel, a relative of his
friend Marcotte d'Argenteuil. This marriage proved as happy as his
first, and in the decade that followed Ingres completed several
significant works. A major undertaking was the Apotheosis of
Napoleon I, painted in 1853 for the ceiling of a hall in the
Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and destroyed by fire in the
Commune of 1871. The portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie
was also completed in 1853, and
Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII appeared in
1854. The latter was largely the work of assistants, whom Ingres often
entrusted with the execution of backgrounds. In 1855 Ingres consented
to rescind his resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in
favour of the International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for
Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, president of the jury,
proposed an exceptional recompense for their author, and obtained from
Napoleon III Ingres's nomination as grand officer of the
The Virgin Adoring the Host, 1852
With renewed confidence Ingres now took up and
The Source, a figure for which he had painted the torso in
1820; when it was seen with other works in London in 1862, admiration
for his works was renewed, and he was given the title of senator by
the imperial government.
After the completion of The Source, Ingres
painted two versions of
Louis XIV and
Molière (1857 and 1860), and produced variant copies of
several of his earlier compositions. These included religious works in
which the figure of the Virgin from The Vow of Louis XIII is
reprised: The Virgin of the Adoption of 1858 (painted for
Mademoiselle Roland-Gosselin) was followed by The Virgin Crowned
(painted for Madame la Baronne de Larinthie) and The Virgin with
Child. In 1859 he produced repetitions of The Virgin of the
Host, and in 1862 he completed Christ and the Doctors, a
work commissioned many years before by Queen
Marie Amalie for the chapel of
The last of his important portrait paintings date
from this period:
Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier, Seated
(1856), Self-Portrait at the Age of Seventy-nine and Madame
J.-A.-D. Ingres, née Delphine Ramel, both completed in 1859.
The Turkish Bath, finished in a rectangular format in 1859,
was revised in 1860 before being turned into a
tondo. Ingres signed and dated it in 1862, although he made
additional revisions in 1863.
Ingres died of
pneumonia on 14 January 1867, at the age of eighty-six, having
preserved his faculties to the last. He is interred in the
Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris with a tomb sculpted by his
Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. The contents of his studio, including a
number of major paintings, over 4000 drawings, and his violin, were
bequeathed by the artist to the city museum of Montauban, now known as
Odalisque with Slave, 1842, oil on canvas, 76 x 105 cm,
Walters Art Gallery,
Ingres's style was formed early in life and
changed comparatively little.
His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (or
Portrait of an unknown, 3 July 1797, now in the Louvre)
already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the
parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his
paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his
often-quoted conviction that "drawing is the probity of art".
He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing,
explaining: "Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just
the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the
composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is
seven eighths of what makes up painting."
He abhorred the visible brushstroke and made no
recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the
Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly
modelled in light by half tones. "Ce que l'on sait," he would repeat,
"il faut le savoir l'épée à la main." ("Whatever you know, you must
know it with sword in hand.") Ingres thus left himself without the
means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with
crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the
Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian. Among Ingres's historical and
mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those
depicting one or two figures. In Oedipus,
The Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring,
subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical
well-being, we find Ingres at his best.
Roger Freeing Angelica, 1819, oil on canvas, 147 x 190 cm,
portrays an episode from
Orlando Furioso by
Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest
qualities of Ingres's work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the
rescue on his
hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely successful
in the depiction of movement and drama. According to Sanford Schwartz,
the "historical, mythological, and religious pictures bespeak huge
amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying little palpable sense
of inner tension, are costume dramas ... The faces in the history
pictures are essentially those of models waiting for the session to be
over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it comes across stridently,
Ingres's choice of subjects reflected his
literary tastes, which were severely limited: he read and reread
histories, and the lives of the artists.
Throughout his life he revisited a small number of favourite themes,
and painted multiple versions of many of his major compositions.
He did not share his age's enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally
preferred to depict "moments of revelation or intimate decision
manifested by meeting or confrontation, but never by violence."
His numerous odalisque paintings were influenced to a great extent by
the writings of
Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose
diaries and letters, when published, fascinated European society.
Although capable of painting quickly, he often
laboured for years over a painting. Ingres's pupil
Amaury-Duval wrote of him: "With this facility of execution, one
has trouble explaining why Ingres' oeuvre is not still larger, but he
scraped out [his work] frequently, never being satisfied ... and
perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him,
certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too."
The Source, although dated 1856, was painted about 1820,
except for the head and the extremities; Amaury-Duval, who knew the
work in its incomplete state, professed that the after-painting,
necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of
touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso.
By the time of Ingres's retrospective at the
Exposition Universelle in 1855, an emerging consensus viewed his
portrait paintings as his masterpieces.
Their consistently high quality belies Ingres's often-stated complaint
that the demands of portraiture robbed him of time he could have spent
painting historical subjects. The most famous of all of Ingres's
portraits, depicting the journalist Louis-François Bertin,
quickly became a symbol of the rising economic and political power of
His portraits of women range from the warmly sensuous Madame de
Senonnes (1814) to the realistic Mademoiselle Jeanne Gonin
Junoesque Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier
(portrayed standing and seated, 1851 and 1856), and the chilly
Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn,
Princesse de Broglie (1853).
Mme Victor Baltard and Her Daughter, Paule,
1836, pencil on paper, 30.1 x 22.3 cm
His portrait drawings, of which about 450 are
are today among his most admired works. While a disproportionate
number of them date from his difficult early years in Italy, he
continued to produce portrait drawings of his friends until the end of
Agnes Mongan has written of the portrait drawings:
Before his departure in the fall of 1806 from
Paris for Rome, the familiar characteristics of his drawing style were
well established, the delicate yet firm contour, the definite yet
discreet distortions of form, the almost uncanny capacity to seize a
likeness in the precise yet lively delineation of features.
The preferred materials were also already
established: the sharply pointed graphite pencil on a smooth white
paper. So familiar to us are both the materials and the manner that we
forget how extraordinary they must have seemed at the time ... Ingres'
manner of drawing was as new as the century. It was immediately
recognized as expert and admirable. If his paintings were sternly
criticized as "Gothic," no comparable criticism was leveled at his
His student Robert Balze described Ingres's
working routine in executing his portrait drawings, each of which
required four hours, as "an hour and a half in the morning, then
two-and-a-half hours in the afternoon, he very rarely retouched it the
next day. He often told me that he got the essence of the portrait
while lunching with the model who, off guard, became more natural."
Ingres drew his portrait drawings on
wove paper, which provided a smooth surface very different from
the ribbed surface of
laid paper (which is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to today as
Drawings made in preparation for paintings, such
as the many nude studies for The Martyrdom of St. Symphorian
and The Golden Age, are more varied in size and treatment than
are the portrait drawings. He also drew a number of
landscape views while in Rome, but he painted only one pure
landscape, the small tondo Raphael's Casino (although two other
small landscape tondos are sometimes attributed to him).
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres commemorated on a
postage stamp of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1980. The 1856 painting
The Source is in the background.
Ingres was regarded as an effective teacher and
was beloved by his students.
The best known of them is
Théodore Chassériau, who studied with him from 1830, as a
precocious eleven-year-old, until Ingres closed his studio in 1834 to
return to Rome. Ingres considered Chassériau his truest discipleeven
predicting, according to an early biographer, that he would be "the
Napoleon of painting".
By the time Chassériau visited Ingres in Rome in 1840, however, the
younger artist's growing allegiance to the romantic style of
Delacroix was apparent, leading Ingres to disown his favourite
student, of whom he subsequently spoke rarely and censoriously. No
other artist who studied under Ingres succeeded in establishing a
strong identity; among the most notable of them were
Henri Lehmann, and
Eugène Emmanuel Amaury-Duval.
Ingres's influence on later generations of
artists has been considerable. His most significant heir was
who studied under
Louis Lamothe, a minor disciple of Ingres. In the 20th century,
Matisse were among those who acknowledged a debt to the great
classicist; Matisse described him as the first painter "to use pure
colours, outlining them without distorting them."
Pierre Barousse, the Keeper of the Musée Ingres, has written:
The case of Ingres is certainly disturbing when
one realizes in how many ways a variety of artists claim him as their
master, from the most plainly conventional of the nineteenth century
Bouguereau, to the most revolutionary of our century from Matisse
to Picasso. A classicist? Above all, he was moved by the impulse to
penetrate the secret of natural beauty and to reinterpret it through
its own means; an attitude fundamentally different to that of
David ... there results a truly personal and unique art admired as
much by the
for its plastic autonomy, as by the
Surrealists for its visionary qualities.
Barnett Newman credited Ingres as a progenitor of
abstract expressionism, explaining: "That guy was an abstract
painter ... He looked at the canvas more often than at the model.
de Kooningnone of us would have existed without him."
Ingres's well-known passion for playing the
violin gave to the French language a
colloquialism, "violon d'Ingres", meaning a second skill
beyond the one by which a person is mainly known. The American
Ray used this expression as the title of a famous photograph
Alice Prin (aka Kiki de Montparnasse) in the pose of the
His actual skill on the violin is a matter of
dispute. He played Beethoven string quartets with
Niccolò Paganini. In an 1839 letter,
Franz Liszt described his playing as "charming", and planned to
play through all the Mozart and Beethoven violin sonatas with Ingres.
Liszt also dedicated his transcriptions of the
symphonies of Beethoven to Ingres on their original publication in
Charles Gounod was non-committal, merely noting that "he was not a
professional, even less a virtuoso". But Sir
Charles Hallé was scathing, writing "He thought less of his
paintings than his violin playing, which, to say the least of it, was
Academic Study of a Male
National Museum in
The Valpinçon Bather, 1808, Louvre
National Gallery of Art
Jupiter and Thetis, 1811, Musée Granet in
Niccolò Paganini, 1819
Jeanne-Suzanne-Catherine Gonin, 1821,
Taft Museum of Art
Baronne de Rothschild, 1848, Rothschild Collection, Paris
Louise de Broglie, Countess d'Haussonville, 1845,
Albert de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline
de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, 1853,
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Joan of Arc at the Coronation of
Charles VII, 1854, Louvre
The Source, 1856,
Mme. Moitessier, 1856,
Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 14.
Jump up ^ Turner 2000, p. 237.
Jump up ^ Parker 1926
Jump up to: a
b Arikha 1986, p. 103.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 25, 280.
Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 15.
Jump up to: a
c Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xix.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 31.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 46.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 48.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 22.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 68.
Jump up ^ Quoted and translated in Tinterow, Conisbee
et al. 1999, p. 70.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 27.
Jump up to: a
b Condon et al. 1983, p. 13.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 546.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 75.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 38.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp 98101.
Jump up to: a
b Arikha 1986, p. 104.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 152154.
Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xx.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 106.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 26.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 50; Tinterow,
Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 147.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 111.
Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xvii.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 12.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 86.
Jump up ^ Delaborde 1870, p. 229.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, pp. 2223.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, pp. 23, 114
Jump up ^ Siegfried & Rifkin 2001, p. 7881.
Jump up ^ Grimme 2006, p. 30.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 281282.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 503.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 550.
Jump up ^ Shelton, Andrew Carrington (2005). Ingres
and his Critics. Cambridge University Press, p. 61.
Jump up ^
The Walters Art Museum.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 554.
Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 90.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 25.
Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 5.
Jump up ^
"Portrait of an unknown, since the bust, left profile - Jean
Auguste Dominique Ingres - WikiArt.org".
Jump up ^ Prat 2004, p. 13.
Jump up ^ Barousse 1979, p. 5.
Jump up ^ Schwartz 2006, p. 5.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, pp. 1213.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, pp. 1112.
Jump up ^
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 11.
Jump up ^ Condon et al. 1983, p. 64; Radius 1968, p.
Jump up ^ Cohn and Siegfried 1980, p. 75.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 512.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 300.
Jump up ^ Ribeiro 1999, p. 47.
Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xiii.
Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 6.
Jump up ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. 244.
Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 1.
Jump up ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 281.
Jump up ^ Guégan et al. 2002, p. 168.
Jump up ^ Arikha 1986, p. 11.
Jump up ^ Barousse 1979, p. 7.
Jump up ^ Schneider 1969, p. 39.
Jump up ^
"Le Violon d'Ingres (Ingres's Violin) (Getty Museum)".
Getty.edu. 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
Jump up ^ Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
5th ed, 1954, Vol. V, p. 299: "Franz Liszt: Catalogue of Works".
Jump up ^ Williams, Sam (October 2010).
Limelight. "Le Violon d'Ingres'".
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of an Epoch. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
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